Plants compose compound with antimicrobial, antifungal properties that can be used to protect plant from pathogens causing disease. Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis) is a medicinal and an aromatic herb. The  major component  of essential oil (EO) of Hyssopus officinalis are pinocamphone, isopinocamphone and α-pinene, β-pinene, limonene, linalool, 1,8-cineole and β-caryophyllene  (Fraternale et al., 2004; Letessier et al., 2013; Sharifi-Rad et al., 2022).  The major difference in the composition of the oils were detected in the ratio pinocamphone/isopinocamphone, in the percentage of linalool and camphor (Fraternale et al., 2004). Pinocamphone and isopinocamphone are present in H. officinalis but are lacking in H. officinalis L. var. decumbense where linalool, 1,8-cineole and limonene are predominant (Mazzanti et al., 1998). The effect of EO of H. officinalis on cell wall of the growing hyphae of Aspergillus fumigatus showed reduction in levels of neutral sugars, uronic acid and proteins, while amino sugars, lipids and phosphorus levels increased (Ghfir et al., 1997). Hyssop essential oil has low antioxidant and strong antimicrobial activity against a few test organisms (Kizil et al., 2010). Essential oils from Juniperus communis L., Hyssopus officinalis L., and Thymus vulgaris control carrot seed-borne pathogen Alternaria spp. (Lukosiute et al., 2021).  

H. officinalis essential oil display antioxidant and antimicrobial activity against pathogenic microorganisms (Moulodi et al., 2019). The H. officinalis EO possess high antimicrobial activities in vitro against Klebsiella sp.  and Erwinia amylovora plant pathogens and can be used in control of plant disease (Dehghanzadeh et al., 2012).  The effect of H. officinalis var. decumbens was bactericidal, linalool and 1,8-Cineole exhibits high antimicrobial activity of  var. decumbens as compared to H. officinalis, while  limonene displayed antimycotic action which is present in both oils (Mazzanti et al., 1998). The biocidal (nematicidal, ixodicidal, phytotoxic and insecticidal) effect of industrial steam distilled essential oil from H. officinalis was strongly active against insect Spodoptera littoralis (Ortiz de Elguea-Culebras et al., 2017). H. officinalis showed minimum inhibitory concentration of 4000 µg/mL against Staphylococcus aureus and 2000 µg/mL against Salmonella abony and Escherichia coli respectively (Stappen et al., 2015). Hyssop essential oil has bacteriostatic activity (Marino et al., 2001).  Light and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) observation of  hyphae of  Botrytis cinerea exposed to essential oils revealed alteration in hyphal morphology such as degeneration of fungal hyphae, shrivelled hyphal aggregates, reduced hyphal diameter and lysis of hyphal wall  compared with thick elongated normal mycelial growth in controls  (Soylu et al.,2010). The essential oil of H. officinalis is used as a potential antifungal agent in controlling of pathogenic disease caused by Mycogone perniciosa in mushroom species Agaricus bisporus Lange (Imb) (Glamoclija et al., 2005). Past studies has been made on medicinal and aromatic plant as biocontrol system are not much used in mushroom cultivation (Raila et al., 2009; Fathiazad and Hamedeyazdan 2011).

Hyssop oil exhibits antifungal and antibacterial activity and are used against many plant diseases for example potato’s late blight  (Hristova et al., 2015, Judzantiene 2016). The mycelial growth of plant pathogenic fungi Pyrenophora avenae and Pyricularia oryzae was completely inhibited by 0.4% hyssop oil. As well as hyssop oil reduced growth of Botrytis fabae conidia and uredospores of Uromyces viciae-fabae (Letessier et al., 2013). 0.05% of hyssop oil reduced rust infection of broad bean when applied on first, second or third day before or one or two days after inoculation (Letessier et al., 2013). The oil showed antifungal activity against 13 strains of phytopathogenic fungi (Fraternale et al., 2004). Linalool has bacteriostatic activity at high concentration (50% and 100%) (Stan et al., 2022). Plant extract of H. officinalis completely controlled mycelial growth and sporulation of Botrytis cinerea (Sesan et al., 2015). The anticandidal action of hyssop oil may be due to increase in yeast membrane permeability and  disrupting the normal membrane transport by affecting membrane ATPase (Hristova et al., 2015). Effect of H. officinalis essential oil on Aspergillus fumigatus induced alteration in the proportion of fatty acids, neutral lipid and phospholipid fractions. The lipids and sterols were reduced whereas total phospholipid increased (Ghfir et al., 1994).

The essential oils are a mixture of biologically active molecules and can be an alternative to toxic chemicals


Dehghanzadeh, N., Ketabchi, S. and Alizadeh, A. 2012 Essential Oil Composition and Antibacterial Activity of  Hyssopus officinalis L. Grown in Iran. Asian J. Exp. Biol. Sci. 3(4): 767 – 771

Fathiazad, F. and Hamedeyazdan, S. 2011 A Review on Hyssopus officinalis L.: Composition and Biological Activities. African J. Pharma. Pharmacol. 5(17): 1959 – 1966

doi: 10.5897/AJPP11.527

Fraternale, D., Ricci, D., Epifano, F. and Curini, M. 2004 Composition and Antifungal Activity of Two Essential Oils of Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L.). J. Essen. Oil Res. 16(6):  617- 622


Ghfir, B., Fonvieille, J. L. and Dargent, R. 1997 Influence of Essential Oil of Hyssopus officinalis on the Chemical Composition of the Walls of Aspergillus fumigatus (Fresenius). Mycopathologia. 138(1): 7 – 12

doi: 10.1023/A:1006876018261

Ghfir, B., Fonvieille, J. L., Koulali, Y., Ecalle, R. and Dargent, R. 1994 Effect of Essential Oil of Hyssopus officinalis  on the Lipid Composition of Aspergillus fumigatus. Mycopathologia 126(3): 163 – 167

doi: 10.1007/BF01103770

Glamoclija, J. M., Sokovic, M. D., Vukojevic, J. B., Milenkovic, I. M., Brkic, D. D. and Van Griensven, L. J. L. D. 2005 Antifungal Activity of Essential Oil Hyssopus officinalis L. against Micopathogen  Mycogone perniciosa (Manag). Zbornik Matice Srpske za Prirodne Nauke 2005(109): 123 – 128


Hristova, Y., Wanner, J., Jirovetz, L., Stappen, I., Lliev, I. and Gochev, V. 2015 Chemical Composition and Antifungal Activity of Essential Oil of Hyssopus officinalis  L. from Bulgaria against Clinical Isolates of Candida species. Biotechnol. Biotechnological Equip. 29(3): 592 – 601


Judzentiene, A. 2016 Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis  L.) Oils. In: “Essential Oils in Food Preservation, Flavor and Safety.  Preedy, V. R. (ed.). Academic Press Elsevier USA. Part II Named Essential Oils. Chapter 53: 471 – 479


Kizil, S., Hasimi, N., Tolan, V. and Hakan, K. 2010 Chemical Composition, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L.) Essential Oil. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca 38(3): 99 – 103

doi: 10.15835/nbha3834788

Letessier, M. P., Svoboda, K. P. and Walters, D. R. 2013 Antifungal Activity of the Essential Oil of Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis). J. Phytopathol. 149(11-12): 673 – 678


Lukosiute, S., Rasiukeviciute, N. and Valiuskaite, A. 2021 Control of Carrot Seed-Borne Pathogens by Aromatic Plants Distillates. Biol. Life Sci. Forum 4(29): 1 – 7



Marino, M., Bersani, C. and Comi, G. 2001 Impedance Measurements to Study the Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oils from Lamiaceae and Compositae. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 67(3): 187 – 195

doi: 10.1016/s0168-1605(01)00447-0

Mazzanti, G., Battinelli, L. and Salvatore, G. 1998 Antimicrobial Properties of the Linalol-Rich Essential Oil of Hyssopus officinalis L. var decumbens (Lamiaceae). Flavour and Fragrance  J. 13(5): 289 – 294


Moulodi, F., Khezerlou, A., Zolfaghari, H., Mohamadzadeh, A. and Alimoradi, F. 2019 Chemical Composition and Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Properties of the Essential Oil of Hyssopus officinalis. J. Kermanshah Univ. Med. Sci. 22(4): e85256

doi: 10.5812/jkums.85256

Ortiz de Elguea-Culebras, G., Sanchez-Vioque, R., Berruga, M. I., Herraiz-Penalver, D., Gonzalez-Coloma, A., Andres, M. F. and Santana-Meridas, O. 2017 Biocidal Potential and Chemical Composition of Industrial Essential Oils from Hyssopus officinalis, Lavandula x intermedia var. Super  and Santolina chamaecyparissus.  Chem. Biodiver. 15(1): e1700313

doi: 10.1002/cbdv.201700313

Raila, A., Lugauskas, A., Kemzuraite, A., Zvicevicius, E., Ragazinskiene, O. and Railiene, M. 2009 Different Dying Technologies and Alternation of Mycobiots in the Raw Material of Hyssopus officinalis L. Ann. Agric. Environ. Med. 16(1): 93 – 101

PMID: 19630202

Sesan, T. E., Enache, E. and Lacomi, B. and Oprea, M. 2015 Antifungal Activity of Some Plant Extracts against Botrytis cinerea Pers. In the Blackcurrant Crop (Ribes nigrum L.). Acta Scientiarum Polonorum. Hortorum cultus = Ogrodnictwo 14(1): 29 – 43


Sharifi-Rad, J., Quispe, C., Kumar, M., Akram, M., Amin, M., Iqbal, M., Koirala, N., Sytar, O., Kregiel, D., Nicola, S., Etani, A., Victoriano, M., Khosravi-Dehaghi, N., Martorell, M., Alshehri, M. M., Butnariu, M., Pentea, M., Rotariu, L. S., Calina, D., Cruz-Martins, N. and Cho, W. C. 2022 Hyssopus Essential Oil: An Update of Its Phytochemistry Biological Activities and Safety Profile. Oxid. Med. Cell Longev. 2022: 8442734

doi: 10.1155/2022/8442734

Soylu, E. M., Kurt, S. and Soylu, S. 2010 In Vitro and In Vivo Antifungal Activity of Essential Oils of Various Plants against Tomato Grey Mould Disease Agent Botrytis cinerea. Internat. J. Food Microbiol. 143: 183 – 189

doi: 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2010.08.015

Stan (Tudora), C., Muscalu, A., Burnichi, F., Popescu, C., Gatea, F., Sicuia, O-A., Vladut, N. V. and Israel-Roming, F. 2022 Evaluation of Essential Oil and Hydrolate from a New Hyssop Variety (Hyssop officinalis L.) Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici CLUJ-NAPOCA 50(2): 12639


Stappen, I., Wanner, J., Tabanca, N., Wedge, D. E., Ali, A., Kaul, V. K., Lal, B., Jaitak, V., Gochev, V. K., Schmidt, E. and Jirovetz, L. 2015 Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of Essential Oils of Dracocephalum heterophyllum  and Hyssopus officinalis from Western Himalaya. Natural Product Communication 10(1): 133 – 138


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